Weblinks: Modals


Introduction to Modals Cartoon (some Spanish, but all also in English)

Several pages, each has many modals exercises to choose from:

Probably (must/can’t) http://speakspeak.com/english-grammar-exercises/intermediate/intermediate-grammar-exercise-modal-verbs-for-present-probability-must-cant-could-may-might

Look up these words in the dictionary:  probable, assumption, evidence, requirement, prohibition

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
Possibility possible possibly
probability probable probably
assumption assume assumed
requirement require required
prohibition prohibit prohibited

notes:  must has two meanings.  One is for formal rules.  You must come to the final exam if you want to pass this class.  The other is for probable assumptions based on evidence.  I heard a knock at the door.  It must be our guests arriving.   Use “Have to” instead of must, meaning a requirement, when it is informal or when it is in a different time.  The past of must is had to.  The future of must is will have to.  You can’t change the word “must” so you change to a verb instead.

Choosing between probably and possibly.  Just a guess uses could/may/might, but if you think it’s probably true, based on something you see/hear/know, then use must.